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Diamond  is a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite. Most natural diamonds are formed at high temperature and pressure at depths of 140 to 190 kilometers (87 to 118 mi) in the Earth’s mantle. Carbon-containing minerals provide the carbon source, and the growth occurs over periods from 1 billion to 3.3 billion years (25% to 75% of the age of the Earth). Diamonds are brought close to the Earth’s surface through deep volcanic eruptions by magma, which cools into igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites.

Natural occurrence:

Roughly 49% of diamonds originate from Central and Southern Africa, although significant sources of the mineral have been discovered in Canada, India, Russia, Brazil, and Australia.. Historically, diamonds were found only in alluvial deposits in Guntur and Krishna district of the Krishna River delta in Southern India.[86] India led the world in diamond production from the time of their discovery in approximately the 9th century BC to the mid-18th century AD, but the commercial potential of these sources had been exhausted by the late 18th century and at that time India was eclipsed by Brazil where the first non-Indian diamonds were found in 1725. Currently, one of the most prominent Indian mines is located at Panna.

Physical properties:

A diamond is a transparent crystal of tetrahedrally bonded carbon atoms in a covalent network lattice (sp3) that crystallizes into the diamond lattice which is a variation of the face centered cubicstructure. Diamond is the hardest known natural material on both the Vickers and the Mohs scale. Diamond’s hardness has been known since antiquity, and is the source of its name. Diamond hardness depends on its purity, crystalline perfection and orientation: hardness is higher for flawless, pure crystals . The toughness of natural diamond has been measured as 7.5–10 .The specific gravity of diamond is 3.52.

Astrological significance:

  • Diamond is the representative of Planet Venus.
  • Enhance ones’ beauty, charisma and magnetism.
  • It expands attractiveness, popularity in the eyes of beholder.
  • It increases benevolence, friendship, kindness, fun and frolic and social interaction.
  • It enhances relationship, love bonding, romance, pleasure, sensuality, commitment, sexuality, and improves marriage relationship.
  • It inspires one to indulge in creative works like writing, poetry, singing, acting, pottery, music, dance, sculpture, calligraphy, etc.